1. Learn about Gopher Searches
    Historically, Internet searches were done through Gopher searches. Currently, Internet searches are done through search engines, such as Yahoo! and Google.
    Internet Searches


Gopher is the name of a menu-driven program that makes finding information on the Internet easy. In Gopher, to select a menu or file, you do not have to type its name; you just mouse CLICK on it. You can travel forward and backward through menu items with single mouse clicks. Gopher automatically finds whatever information you want, anyplace on the Internet, by traveling from gopher to gopher around the world.

What If You Don’t Have a Gopher Program?

Gopher servers are located around the world. If you do not have a Gopher client program in your computer, you can telnet to a Gopher site.The University of Minnesota Gopher, shown below, has a list of all the Gopher servers.


Archie, Veronica, and Jughead

How do you find something? Three Gopher Internet search programs are named Archie, Veronica, and Jughead.

Due to the popularity and ease of use of World Wide Web search engines, Archie, Veronica, and Jughead are not used very much any more.

Archie (short for Archives)

Archie was the first of the important Internet search tools. It was designed to keep a database of directories and files in FTP sites on the Internet. Archie sites hold copies of the database, and you enter these sites to conduct a file search. Archie searches for a file name that contains a string of letters, disregarding upper and lower case, that you have identified. Thus, knowing the name of the file you want is important to the use of Archie as an Internet search tool. After Archie finds a computer that has the file you are searching for, you can use FTP to download it. You can obtain a list of Archie sites by typing the command servers while engaged in an Archie search. It is important to use the Archie site nearest you.


(Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives)
Veronica is also a Gopher search tool that searches every item in all Gopher menus for words you have identified. If you entered the words car and boat, Veronica would do a world search of Gopher menus and report to you all the file names that contained the string car and boat. Archie and Veronica conduct similar file searches. Once your site is located, Veronica lets you FTP (File Transfer Protocol) directly from the search screen.


Jughead is another Gopher search tool. Jughead searches Gopher menu names similar to a Veronica search. Jughead database of files is not as extensive as the Veronica database.
Jughead is a good tool for finding starting points for your search. Jughead creates a gopher menu of files just as Veronica does.